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. . , , : , ... . , . , , . (6080%),. , , 70 80% , , , 컠[18,. 371]. , : ? . " , . (7500 6750..).3% , . 94% , .⠭1% 15%. 67%, . 25% 60%. , , . (67506000 . .) ... , "[28,p.5079]."  . , , . 6000.."[24,.267]. , ,, VII . . .VII. . , , [14,.9293,96]. . . : " , "[29,.210].,, , . , (..1) . , ? . ,..6 : , ., ...[12,.35]. , . Ƞ . . . : , . , . . ໠[12,.33]. . . ,. .. . , [30, . 29]. , 620 60% .蠭 49 . . 13, ࠭0,81,5.21,2... ,I, ⻠[12,. 91104]. . . ( ) [31,.74]., .
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. , (,), . , , , . ,., , , . . .,: (, ),,, , 頗 ,. , , . , , [37, . 2627]. , . ,.ՠ ...,15. . ,.. , IX. .  . . , () ( . .). . . : , . , (堭), . , . . [56]. , , , , , , . ʠ , , . . [1,. 59, 64]. . . , ࠫ軠 ? . . ( !),,蠭 . ,堭, .., . ʠ , . . 3. 1) . , ࠭,.  2028 . : 1(2n=14)(Tr. monococcumL.),(r.aegilopoidesLin) .; 2 (2n = 28) (Tr. durum Dest), (Tr. polonicum L), (Tr.cartalicumNevski,Tr.PersicumVav), (à.turgidumL.),(Tr. Timopheevi Zhuk), , (Tr. Dicoccum Shueb), .; 3 (2n = 42) (Tr. aestivumL.),(Tr.Machaet.Men.Deky), (Tr.speltaL.),(Tr.compactumHost.), (Tr.sphaerococcumPers).; 4 (2n = 56) (Tr. fungicidum Zhuk). (2n=14) : (Triticum boeoticum) (T.urartu).  , , , (1, 2). ,( 2n = 28) ( 2n = 42) [38]. (, , ), (, ), , , . , , . 119, 6 컠[39,.214215]. , [41,. 58]. , [42,.99100]. . 2. [38]. , , 1922 : . [40, . 516]. . . 9 , 5,2 [39, . 214 217]. ..: . ... , , [43,.
4243]. . . , . ,. "  , . ... "[46,. 23, 22]. , . , . . : . . , , , [34, . 113]. : , , Tr. monococcum[39,. 218]. , . . ,[44,p. 10741079]..[28,p.80]... , , [45,.69]. : , . . , . , (), [46,.2830]., , , . ȠŠ, . , . , (, , ,). ".Ӡ T.timopheeviiT.boeoticum T.monococcum(Ab),T.turgidumT.aestivum T.urartu(Au).G T.timopheevii,Ae.speltoides Sitopsis. T. turgidumT.aestivum 蠗Ae.longissima(Bl). ,DT. aestivum Ae. squarrosa" [47, . 4849]. , . (Aegilops). , . , , Ae. longissima, ", ­ " [48]." , Ae. speltoides (B G) , "[49]. , , "B 2 Aegilops" [50]. , , D, , Aegilopstauschii[51]. .3.:1 (Triticum boeoticum); 2 (T. monococcum); 3 ;4 (T.araraticum);5 (T.dicoccon);6(T.durum);7 (. polonicum); 8 (T. spelta);9,(T.aestivum);10 (Aegilops cylindrica) [38]. Aegilops tauschii (),, , , [51]. Aegilops speltoides , , , , [52, . 10]. Aegilops squarrosa L. (:AegilopstriuncialisL.,Ae. triaristata Willd, Ae. ovata L. subsp. triaristata (Willd.) Jav, Triticumtriunciale(L.)Raspail):, ,,,, [53]. , , , ,,. , ., Aegilopsovata,( ) , [54]. Aegilopsovata , [41, . 83]. , , Aegilopscylindrica [55]. . . , , , . 2) . " Р Hordeum spontaneum , () , " [57, .
153]. "", .Ƞ,  : " Hordeum spontaneum ,, . . "[58,. 17]. , Hrdeum bulbosum [59]. " Hordeum bulbosum , ;. "[42,.111]. " ". , " " , . 3) . : " . " [63, . 5]. : " , ,"[41,. 55]." " " ". ..:, , , . , . , , ,. , , . ... 頗 , . , , ࠻[34,.205206]. . . , ,(, Setariaitalica) . , . , ,IIIII. . ,໠[18,.150,157].   [18,.7475]., , . M. Horf [64] () . Aggtelek . . 컠 [46,.152]. 蠗 VII,VIII..,. , , , , ,,[67,. 180]. : , . , , , , ., , , . . , ࠗ (fatua)[65,. 659]. , , , . , ? (VII VI . . .).   (VI . ..) . [46,.153,155,160]., . : " ". : . . , " " , ? , ... ? [14, . 135], . , "" ( ), "" (), "" (). : (), meline (), milium () [67, . 178 179]. , [46,.156 157]. ....Ӡ () (I..I...) [46, . 162]. 97% [66, . 15]. , [85, . 29]. . ߠ : . 4). . . . , Secalecereale [60,.56].:S.iranicum,S. silvestre, S. montanum. " " [60, . 65]. , S. silvestre S. montanum. , "". [60, . 63 69]. , [60, .53],.. .,. [60,.48]. () [61]. " , , " [60, . 48]. , , Aegilops ovata [62, . 15]. , . S.segetale, ( ) Subs. dighoricum (Vav.) Tzvel, 1973. , , [41,.66].Ƞ . " , ,, "[46,.133].

. . . . [68] , I ..[69,.3031]., III.. [46,.134137]., .  . 5),Avenasativa.,. . , , 42 , . 5 (2n=14) vena barbata. .[41,.4243]. ", 10%, , , " [70, . 137]. [69,. 8, 12]. " 2500. , , ., , , "[71]. . [72, . 458]. , . 6) , , , Setaria italicum. , . ,, , , , , [67, . 180]. " . , . , " [73, . 232]. () Setariaviridis,, [65,. 677]. [69, . 10]. . 7) . Picumsativum PisumarvenseL. Pisum elatius Bieb. . [74, . 142 144]. PisumarvenseL.. ,..[75].PisumelatiusBieb. . . : , , . : , , ; , [76]. [46, . 172]. 8) . , , , [41,.299]. 9)." , ". [46,.176]. 10) . ,,[41,.251]. [46,.181].

   

11) ()Allium. , , , . , 510 [77, . 62]. , , [106, . 50]. " .... ." [78, . 14 15]. 12) . ." . ... ( ࠭..)... ,, "[78,.9]. 13) . . " , , "[79,. 236]. ࠗ." . "[41,. 128]. 14) Raphanus sativus L. "  . , (Raphanus maritimus Smith),5 ."[77,.117,119]. , , [80]. " "[41,.142]. . , [41, . 143]. 15).  . [77,. 110]." " [41, . 140]. " .... , ....  , Brassica campestris L.... 2n= 20"[81,. 9,12,17]. 16) . " Brassica L. , ... . , . "[81, . 9]. ., , . , [41,.139]. 17) . ", . , . ... ( ) . .... (1912) , , "[79,.279,269,302]. 18) , . [79,.395]. [41,.336]. 19) ,, [79,.374375]. 20) , 頭. [41,.334335]. 21) [41, . 146]. . , " "[72,.458,448]. 22) ,,,. ,,, [77,.249]. [41,.337]. 23) ." , , " [77, . 83]. 24) . . [82]. , ,()[41,. 337].

25) . " . , .  MalussylvestrisMaluspraecos" [73,.481].  10, . Melussilvestris(),M.pumila(),M. dasyphila(),M.baccata( ), M. robusta ( ). () . [104,.1922]. , : , . . . ,堭. . , . .,, [104,.1719]., . [69,.9]. 26) ." , "[77,.132]. , , , , . , ( ) . , . ,. , Pyrus pyraster. , [105,.181183]. : .  , . [105,.184]. , , , (Pyrus nivalis) (P. salicifolia). . (, ), .[105,.166,167,183]., [105,.184]. 27) . "Cerasus avium (L.) Moench ,.:, ( ,,),,( ), (), (), ( )" [83]. 28) . " . . , , , , . : ,I . . . , "[77,.162]. 29) . " , "[84,.6]." , , , , ... 50 , , , " [107, . 222]. [41, . 228]. " : , () . ....  , ( ). "[84,.78,10]. 30) . . . [86]. . [46, . 185]. , . .. " " [46, . 186], . . , " " [103, . 44]. 31) . , , (Vitisviinfera,subsp.Silvestris), [87]. , IV ., [46,.190191]. , ,, , , [41,.318].

32) . , . LinumangustifoliumHuds.  ,, , , ,, .  , [73, . 452]. 33) . [41, . 117]. " .... " [73, . 458]. .

34) Papaver somniferum. ,"ࠗ()" [88]. . " , . ... 3000 .... IXꠗ, , " [89]. , , ,.Ƞ :"85135. 2 3 , 3 4 . ... "[88]. , . , , , [90,.71]. 35) , (Cotinus coggygria Scop.)(RhuscotinusL.).  . (, , ), , . . , ., . (RhuscoriariaL.) . , [91]. ,. : . , , Š ., .(, . .). , Š , . Y (. ), .

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4."" "" " " , . , , " " 2,511. [92, . 5]. , , , . : . : " (), (, ), (), ()" [14, . 84]. : " , , (, , )"[93, .139,138]. " " , [26, . 336 357]. . ,,, "" : http://www.hrono.info/libris/lib_r/rass00indo.html. . . , (), (), , . . , , , , .

, , . . . [93, . 139, 138] , " ". , . . 4. [96,.28]. . "" . . , (, , , ). , , (. ) [97,.62]. . , . , , . , ( ) . , , , , ... ,144216...[37, . 7172]. , , VI.. . [.5]. , , , , , , ()[37,.7273]. VIIVI.. ..... , 㻠[24, . 284]. (5%), . ,黠[94,. 232235].堫 () , VII . . [25, . 11, 13]. ⠗. 1) 2) 5. [37, . 72] (1) (2) [93, . 42 43]. , . ... , Bostauruaf.primigenius. II , .II , , , . II , , , , , , ,. , ,VIIV.. , ໠ [23, . 305]. ,廠[24,. 279]. : , ., , , , , [95, . 298 299]. ,, . : . , , . , . .. .. , ࠗ,..VIII.. .' ', ', ', '', ' ', '', '', ', ', ', ,,',''(, ''!) [96, . 1820]. . . , ,, , , , , ,[93,. 139140].Ƞ ( !),,,[97,.63,6667]. , , . , . Y. Y , , , ໠[98]. ,Y , . 蠗 . . Y 18 ,R [98]. , , , , , R1a, R1b .. . R1. , R1 . , , 1015 . R1b. 68. R1. , R1 ,, ,( 60%) , (3545% ) [99]. R1 , , 軠 [100]. ( 50%, ), . ,,[:101] , , . , . ,. Ƞ, . , . , . , . , . , 12%, 10%, 4%, , ! , ⠗ . , R1b, I ( ). Ѡ,R1a . , (,, ). 63%R1a,.

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40% . , ,. [102]! ,,,, .  :, R1a,, ( ) , ,R1 , . , , , .

5. , . ( ) , . , " ". ,., , , , , , , , ,,,, , , , , , , ,,,,,,,, , , .. , . . , . , , , .Ƞ , . , , ,,,. , , . , . . : I. : 1) , . . , . , , . 2) , Ƞ . . , . 3) , . : ,.

4) . . II. : 1) . . 2) , . 3) ʠʠ . 4) . III. : 1) , . . 2) . . 3) ( ). , , , . . 4) , . 5) ,.

6) . , . . , ,, ( ). .

:

1. . . ' . .: ,1982.256.

2. . . ࠳. ͠..,1946,ղ. 3. . . .,1957, 2.

4.... ,1959,3..318.

5. . . .,1977,21.

6. ., . . // ,1957,1.

7. . . . ͠,1959. 8.

8. . . 1 // .91..:͠,1960..166 187.

9... // .:,1969.

10. . . // ..:,1974.

11.³..,..: ϳ⠳ .:ࠠ, 2004.480.,.

12...𠲠 //

.91..:

͠,1960.192.

13....

.:,1977.180. 14.:: /..,..,..࠳.; .....:,2005.504. 15...,.. //,1996,2.. 317.

16... ..:,1970.280.

17... ()..:,1980.336 .

18... ..:,1989.444. 19.....: ,1986.152.

20.... :,,,. :,2001.208.,.

21.ϳ....: ͠,1952.56.

22..,.고 .:,2000.80.

23... V..( II)//.., .. :. .:,1981..299307.

24... . , ,..:,1989.368.

25... : .: ,2005.20.

26... .:,2007.392. 27... .:,1974.176.

28.FlanneryK.Originsandecologicaleffectsofearly domesticationinIranandTheEast//Men,Settlmentand Urbanism.London,1972.

29... . :,1987.320.

30...,..

VI..:

,1969.328.

31... ..:,1985.184 .

32... //1976..:,1977. .455456.

33... //.., .. :. .:,1981..291299.

34... :,,,, ,,.3. :,1971.752.

35... // : ...: ,1990.102111.

36..Π, //,18(493)1521 2004.

37.. ..:,1982.149.

38...// /...ࠠ http://zr.molbiol.ru/poaceae_znachenije.html[ ]. 39...// .XV., 1925..207237. 40. .. //.13. ,1923..515522. 41. . ., . . .:,1981. 376. 42. . ., . ., . ., ..,..( , )/.... .:,1977.520. 43. . . .:,1987.440.

44.HarlanJ.R.,ZoharyD.Distributionofwildwheatand barley//Science,1966.Vol153.

45. . . // ͠..180.., 1984.

46. . .

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51. Aegilops tauschii Coss. http://www.agroatlas.ru/related/Aegilops_tauschii_ru.htm []. 52. . . cochliobolus sativus Drechs. Ex Dastur. . : 06.01.11 .,2008.18.

53. AegilopstriuncialisL. http://www.agroatlas.ru/related/Aegilops_triuncialis_ru.htm [].

54.Areneopolyploidsalikelyrouteforatransgenewalkto the wild? The Aegilops ovata * Triticum turgidum durum case [Text]/JacquesL.David[etal.]//Biol.J.Linn.Soc.2004. Vol.82,N4..503510.

55. . . ̳ triticum aevistivumaegilopscylindrica. ..:㳿 ,2006.16.

56.GarrodD.,BateD.TheStoneageofmountGarmel. Oxford,1937.

57.:.,.2./.. , . . , . . , . . ,......,.. .:,1990.421.

58. . . (, ,).:,1972.296.

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66...,.. .:䳠,2007.196.

67...,..,.. (,,)... .:,1975.364.

68. . . //, 1957.1.

69. . . : . :,1986.92. 70. . . //// .14.,1925..136139.

71. . ³䳿 䳿 []http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9E %D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%81.

72. . .../....:. ,1885.490.

73. . . :,, ,, , . 2 . : , 1964.792. 74./.... :,1975.268. 75.PisumarvenseL.[ ]http://www.agroatlas.ru/related/Picum_arvense/.

76.PisumelatiusBieb.[ ]http://www.agroatlas.ru/related/Picum_elatius_ru.htm. 77...,..,.. ..:,1978.336.,.

78.....:. .,1960.304.

79...ղ. (, ,,,)/. .,..,..,.. :,1971.436.

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81...,.. ..18.( ,,,,).: ,1985.324. 82.CarumcarviL.[ ] http://www.agroatlas.ru/ru/content/related/Carum_carvi/. 83.Cerasusavium(L.)Moench, [頠] http://www.agroatlas.ru/ru/content/related/Ceratus_avium/.

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90... 黠 ѳ.: ,2005.170.

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92... //. ..:,1982..311.

93... ..:,1976.152.

94...,.. : ..:,1981.320.

95...// ... ,,. .:,1989..297299.

96...,.. // ..5. ..:,1984.

.320.

97.....:, 1989.383.,.

98...,..,.. Y// ,2006,10,1.

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103...,.. . .:,1977.126.

104.: 5..:/.., ..,...;..... .:,1992.352.:.

105...,..,.. ..XIV.(,,)/ .......:,1983. 320.

106....../

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107...3:,,/.. ,..,...;.... ,....:,1997.280.:.

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Summary

In this paper we proved the concept of a separate independentcenteroforiginofthefoodproducingtechniquesin the South of Ukraine. Here since a Mesolithic period were domesticatedcowsandpigs.Also,therearesubstantialgroundsto concludetheindependentoriginofagricultureinthisregion.Wild relatives of almost all cultivated plants, which subsequently becamethebasisoflocalagriculture,growhere.Wecanassume thatherethefirsttimeintheworldhavestartedtogrowcultivated crops such as millet, rye, onions, beets, garlic, cherry plum, culturalcherry,grape,poppyandhemp,aswellaslocalvarieties ofwheat,barley,oats,foxtailmillet,peas,lentils,lathyrus,vetch, cabbage,turnip,radish,carrots,apples,pears,plums,flax,etc.Itis possible that sheep and goats too were domesticated here. The main center of "Neolithic revolution" were the Crimea, the Northern coast of the Black and Azov Seas, where lived representatives of the Highland Crimean (Gornokrymska) and Kukrek cultures. An important factor is the close relationship betweenHighlandCrimeanandNatufianculture.Inthispaperwe alsoprovedtheconceptofidentitybetweenholdersoftheKukrek cultureandPreNostraticlanguage.Theyhadwidelysettledwith theircattleintheOldWorldatthebeginningoftheNeolithicage. 100 頠

   

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. . ". ". 26 (65). 1, . 1. 2013 . . 305312. . . ...

. . . . INDEX THESAURI LINGUAE TSCHUWASCHORUM N. I. ASHMARINI Tscheboksari 811.161.1'37 12=635.1*468*31 60 ...

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10.02.04 , , 2015 ..4 11 ..12 -175 ...

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