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Stubbs, William Select Charters and other Illustrations of English Constitutional History from the Earliest Times to the Reign of Edward the First.

Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1900.

: Mr. Benjamin Thorpe, in the Ancient Laws and Institutes of the Anglo-Saxons

1. Leod = The People ( , )


leod (plural leod or leods) 1. (collectively, obsolete) People.

2. (obsolete) A people, nation, people group.

3. (obsolete) A man, person.

(. . "") = -

2. Bot = Amends or Reparation (, ) From Germanic *bt- good. Cognate with Old Frisian bte, Old Saxon bta (Dutch boete), Old High German buoza (German Bue), Old Norse bt (Swedish bot).

bt f. (plural bte)

1. remedy, cure

2. rescue, deliverance from evil Related terms



A. D. 600. Kent. ETHELBERT; cap. 2. If the king call his 'leod' to him and any one there do them evil, let him compensate with a twofold 'bot' and fifty shillings to the king.

3. Methel = An Assembly

4. Borh = A Surety


A. D. cir. 680. Kent. HLOTHAERE AND EADRIC; cap. 8. If one man make plaint against another in a suit, and he cite the man to a 'methel' or to a ' thing,' let the man always give 'borh' to the other, and do him such right as the Kentish judges prescribe to them.

5. Witan = Wise Men

6. Scirman = The Headman of the Shire, Probably Sheriff

7. Wedd = A Pledge or Gage

8. Wer = The pecuniary estimation of a man, by which the value of his oath and the payment for his death were determined

9. Burg-bryce = The violation of a castle or place

10. Gesithcund = A companion of King or great lord, and so ennobled by service

11. Fyrd = The duty of military service for defense of the country

12. Fyrdwite = The penalty for neglecting the duty of military service Fyrd Definition: In Anglo-Saxon England, the fyrd was a militia, an army that consisted of free, able-bodied men that would only be gathered when battle was expected. It was the duty of the ealdorman to raise a fyrd within his shire when the king needed it. Men who shirked their duties as part of the fyrd were subject to a fine, which varied according to the man's individual standing and wealth.

When they weren't fighting or preparing to fight, members of the fyrd lived ordinary lives, working on their farms or at a skill to support their families.

Eventually, use of the fyrd diminished and was replaced by calling upon thegns and their retainers, but even after the Norman Conquest they were occasionally used for defensive purposes [Melissa Snell, About.com Guide].

Also Known As: here


When William the Conqueror prepared to invade England, he waited so long for the weather conditions to be optimum for crossing the English Channel that King Harold had to disband the fyrd and let the men return to their farms.

Related Glossary Terms



A. D. cir. 690. Wessex. INI; Preamble to Laws. I, Ini, by God's grace king of the West Saxons, with the counsel and with the teaching of Cenred my father, and of Hedde my bishop, and of Eorcenwold my bishop, with all my ealdormen and the most distinguished 'witan' of my people, and also with a large assembly of God's servants, have been considering of the health of our souls and of the stability of our realm; so that just law and just kingly dooms might be settled and established throughout our folk, so that none of the ealdormen nor of our subjects should hereafter pervert these our dooms.

Cap. 8. If any one demand justice before a 'scirman' or other judge and cannot obtain it, and a man (the defendant) will not give him 'wedd,' let him make 'bot' with xxx. shillings, and within vii. days do him justice.

Cap. 11. If any one sell his own countryman, bond or free, though he be guilty, over sea, let him pay for him according to his 'wer.' Cap. 36. Let him who takes a thief, or to whom one taken is given, and he then lets conceals the theft, pay for the thief according to his 'wer.' If he be an ealdorman, let him forfeit his shire, unless the king is willing to be merciful to him.

Cap. 39. If any one go from his lord without leave, or steal himself away into another shire, and he be discovered, let him go where he was before, and pay to his lord lx. shillings.

Cap. 45. 'bot' shall be made for the king's 'burg-bryce' and a bishop's, where his jurisdiction is, with cxx. shillings; for an ealdorman's, with lxxx. shillings; for a king's thegn's, with lx. shillings; for a 'gesithcund' man's, having land, with xxxv.

shillings, and according to this make the legal denial.

Cap. 51. If a 'gesithcund' man owning land neglect the 'fyrd,' let him pay cxx.

shillings and forfeit his land; one not owning land, lx. shillings; a ceorlish man, xxx. shillings, as 'fyrdwite.'

13. Angylde = Legal value

14. Wite = A payment by way of punishment

15. Gemot = A meeting

16. Boc-land = Land the possession of which is secured by a charter

17. Maeg-burg = The kindred (, )


A. D. cir. 890. Wessex. ALFRED; Preamble....They then ordained.... that secular lords, with their (the bishops and witan) leave might without sin take for almost every misdeed, for the first offence the money 'bot' which they then ordained;

except in cases of treason against a lord; to which they dared not assign any mercy.... I, then, Alfred, king, gathered these (laws) together, and commanded many of those to be written which our forefathers held, those which to me seemed good; and many of those which seemed to me not good I rejected them, by the counsel of my 'witan'.... I, then, Alfred, king of the West Saxons, shewed these to all my 'witan' and they then said that it seemed good to them all to be holder.

Cap. 4. If any one plot against the king's life, of himself, or by harbouring of exiles, or of his men; let him be liable in his life and in all that he has.... He who plots against his lord's life, let him be liable in his life to him, and in all that he has...

Cap. 22 If any one at the folkmote make declaration of a debt, and afterwards wish to withdraw it, let him charge it on a righter person, if he can; if he cannot, let him forfeit his 'angylde,' and [let the reeve] take possession of the 'wite.' Cap. 27. If a man, kinless of paternal relatives, fight and slay a man, and then if he have maternal relatives, let them pay a third of the 'wer;' his guild-brethren a third part; for a third let him flee. If he have no maternal relatives, let his guild-brethren pay half, for half let him flee.

Cap. 28. If a man kill a man thus circumstanced, if he have no relatives, let half be paid to the king, half to his guild-brethren.

Cap. 38. If a man fight before a king's ealdorman in the 'gemot,' let him make 'bot' with 'wer' and 'wite,' as it may be right; and before this, cxx. shillings to the ealdorman as 'wite.' If he disturb the folkmote by drawing his weapon, cxx.

shillings to the ealdorman as ' wite.' If aught of this happen before a king's ealdorman's junior, or a king's priest, xxx. shillings as 'wite.' Cap. 41. The man who has 'boc-land,' and which his kindred left him, then ordain we that he must not give it from his 'maeg-burg,' if there be writing or witness that it was forbidden by those men who at first acquired it, and by those who gave it to him, that he should do so; and then let that be declared in the presence of the king and of the bishop before his kinsmen.

18. Ceorl = A freeman who is not noble

19. Gafol = Tax

20. Liesing = The Danish freedman


A. D. 879. ALFRED AND GUTHRUM'S PEACE. This is the peace that King Alfred and King Guthrum, and the 'witan' of all the English nation, and all the people that are in East Anglia, have all ordained and with oaths confirmed, for themselves and for their descendants, as well for born as for unborn, who reck of God's mercy or of ours.

1. Concerning our land boundaries; Up on the Thames, and then up on the Lea, and along the Lea unto its source, then right to Bedford, then up on the Ouse unto Watling Street.

2. Then is this: If a man be slain, we estimate all equally dear, English and Danish, at viii. half marks of pure gold; except the 'ceorl' who resides on 'gafol' land and their 'liesings;' they also are equally dear, either at cc shillings.

21. Frith = Peace (. . )


A. D. cir. 920. Wessex. EDWARD; cap. 4. King Edward exhorted his witan, when they were at Exeter, that they should all search out how their 'frith' might be better than it had previously been; for it seemed to him that it was more indifferently observed than it should be, what he had formerly commanded.

22. Utware = A grant of land by the King from the public land

23. thegn (thane) = A lord who held his land directly from the king in return for military service in time of war.

Thegn Definition: In Anglo-Saxon England, a thegn was a lord who held his land directly from the king in return for military service in time of war. Thegns could earn their titles and lands or inherit them. Initially, the thegn ranked below all other Anglo-Saxon nobility; however, with the proliferation of thegns came a subdivision of the class. There were "king's thegns," who held certain privileges and answered only to the king, and inferior thegns that served other thegns or bishops.

By a law of Ethelred II, the 12 senior thegns of any given hundred acted as a judicial committee that determined whether or not a suspect should be officially accused of a crime. This was evidently a very early precursor to the modern grand jury.

The power of thegns declined after the Norman Conquest, when lords of the new regime took control of most lands in England. The term thane persisted in Scotland until the 1400s in reference to a hereditary tenant of the crown who did not serve in the military [Melissa Snell, About.com Guide].

Alternate Spellings: thane


King Ethylgrihn called on his thegns to help defend against a Viking invasion.

Related Glossary Terms


24. Hundred Definition: A hundred was a unit of local government in medieval England. A subdivision of a shire, the hundred was, initially, a collection of 100 hides. The term persisted, even though a hundred rarely consisted of that exact number of hides. The first recorded use of the term was made during the reign of King Edmund in the mid-10th century, though according to an anonymous Ordinance of the Hundred in the late 10th century, it had been established long before.

Each hundred had a court that met once a month, usually in the open air, at a wellpublicized time and place. There both criminal matters and private disputes were settled. In its earliest incarnation, all residents of the hundred were expected to attend the hundred court, but over the centuries attendance was restricted to the tenants of specific lands. Regular attendants acted as judges, except when the sheriff filled the role on his twice-yearly visits. Gradually, private lords took control of hundred courts.

Crimes committed within a hundred during the Middle Ages were the responsibility of its residents. If the criminal were not found, they were responsible for making financial reparations [Melissa Snell, About.com Guide].

Also Known As: Wapentake (in areas settled by the Danes) and Ward (in the far north of England).


When the hundred court met in October, Tom was tried for stealing John's best pig.

There were five hundreds in the Shire of Ware.

Related Glossary Terms


25. Hide Definition: A hide is a unit of land, the size of which has varied over the course of English history. In Anglo-Saxon England, a hide was an amount of land considered sufficient to support a single peasant family. Like the acre, this could vary depending on the soil and terrain. The hide was the earliest known land measurement to be used as the basis of taxation in England, and it was also used as the basis for mustering the Anglo-Saxon militia, the fyrd.

After the Norman Conquest, the hide continued to be used as the basis for taxation.

In the 12th and 13th centuries, a hide was specifically defined as 120 acres. This is generally much more than is necessary to support the average family; it has been theorized that by this time peasant families usually held no more than a quarter of a hide [Melissa Snell, About.com Guide].


The people in Tom's village worked the land on seven hides.

The powerful Stubbons family had an entire hide to themselves.

Related Glossary Terms



A. D. cir. 920. Wessex. EDWARD Of People's Ranks and Law.

1. It was whilom, in the laws of the English, that people and law went by ranks, and then were the counsellors of the nation of worship worthy, each according to his condition, eorl and ceorl, thegen and theoden.

2. And if a ceorl throve, so that he had fully five hides of his own land, church and kitchen, bell-house and burh-gate-seat, and special duty in the king's hall, then was he thenceforth of thegn-right worthy.

3. And if a thegn throve, so that he served the king, and on his summons rode among his household; if he then had a thegn who him followed, who to the king's 'utware' five hides had, and in the king's hall served his lord, and thrice with his errand went to the king, he might thenceforth with his 'foreoath' his lord represent at various needs, and his plaint lawfully conduct, wheresoever he ought.

4. And he who so prosperous a vicegerent had not, swore for himself according to his right, or it forfeited.

5. And if a thegn throve so that he became an eorl, then was he thenceforth of eorlright worthy.

6. And if a merchant throve, so that he fared thrice over the wide sea by his own means, then was he thenceforth of thegn-right worthy.

7. And if there a scholar were, who through learning throve, so that he had holy orders, and served Christ, then was he thenceforth of rank and power so much worthy. as then to those orders rightfully belonged, if he himself conducted so as he should; unless he should misdo, so that he those orders' ministry might not minister.

8. And if it happened that any one a man in orders, or a stranger, anywhere injured, by word or work, then pertained it to king and to bishop, that they that should make good as they soonest might.

26. Wergild = The payment for the slaying of a man

27.Thyrmsas = A coin worth three pence


Of Wergilds.

1. The north people's king's gild is 30,000 thrymsas; 15,000 are for the wergild, and 15,000 for the cynedom. The wer belongs to the kindred and the cynebot to the people.

2. An archbishop's and an aetheling's wergild is 15,000 thrymsas.

3. A bishop's and ealdorman's, 8000 thrymsas.

4. A hold's and a king's high reeve's, 4000 thrymsas.

5. A mass thegn's and a secular thegn's, 2000 thrymsas.

6. A ceorl's wergild is 266 thrymsas, that is 200 shillings by Mercian law....

28. Aetheling = any person of noble birth :

Edgar the AEtheling William the Aetheling also spelled Atheling, or Etheling in Anglo-Saxon England, generally any person of noble birth. Use of the term was usually restricted to members of a royal family, and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle it is used almost exclusively for members of the royal house of Wessex. It was occasionally used after the Norman Conquest to designate members of the royal familye.g., William the Aetheling, son and heir of King Henry I.

The earlier part of the word formed part of the name of several Anglo-Saxon kingse.g., Aethelbert, Aethelwulf, Aethelredand was used obviously to indicate their noble birth.... [Encyclopdia Britannica "Aetheling." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 16 Sep. 2010 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/7576/Aetheling] AETHELING, an Anglo-Saxon word compounded of aethele, or ethel, meaning noble, and ing, belonging to, and akin to the modern German words Adel, nobility, and adelig, noble. During the earliest years of the Anglo-Saxon rule in England the word was probably used to denote any person of noble birth. Its use was, however, soon restricted to members of a royal family, and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle it is used almost exclusively for members of the royal house of Wessex. It was occasionally used after the Norman Conquest to designate members of the royal family. The earlier part of the word formed part of the name of several AngloSaxon kings, e.g. AEthelbert, AEthelwulf, AEthelred, and was used obviously to indicate their noble birth. According to a document which probably dates from the 10th century, the wergild of an aetheling was fixed at 15,000 thrymsas, or 11,250 shillings. This wergild is equal to that of an archbishop and one-half of that of a king [LoveToKnow 1911 http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Aetheling].


There were 2 types of lawyer in early XIX cent. England [Pool 2003]

1) Courtroom lawyers, who plead/ argued in court (barristers, serjeants, advocates)

2) Lawyers, who prepared the cases for these courtroom lawyers hired them after themselves being retained by clients (solicitors, attorneys, proctors).


As well as having spiritual jurisdiction over the diocese of Durham, the bishops of Durham retained temporal jurisdiction over County Durham until 1836. The bishop's mitre which crowns the bishop of Durham's coat of arms is encircled with a gold coronet which is otherwise used only by dukes, reflecting his historic dignity as a palatine earl.

Lancashire was made a county, or duchy, palatine in 1351 and kept many of its special judicial privileges until 1873. Although the dukedom of Lancaster merged into the Crown in 1399, it is to this day held separate from other royal lands, and managed by the Duchy of Lancaster. The title of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is still used by a member of the cabinet. In Lancashire, the loyal toast is to "the Queen, Duke of Lancaster."

The king's writs did not run in these three palatine counties until the nineteenth century and, until the 1970s, Lancashire and Durham had their own courts of chancery.

There are two kings in England, namely, the lord king of England wearing a crown and the lord bishop of Durham wearing a mitre in place of a crown William de St Botolph, 1302 Other palatine counties

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